Encourage participation - Many English learners come from countries in which student participation is not encouraged. They may be reluctant to speak, not only because of their lack of proficiency in English, but also because of they are uncomfortable in an environment where they are asked to share their ideas. A positive and supportive environment has a significant influence on student comfort level, participation, and success.
Requiring English language learners to speak in front of class may be counter-productive and cause great anxiety. Consistent routines — English learners are freer to concentrate on new concepts if they are familiar with classroom routines. Use organizational structures when teaching earth and space science 8. This will help ELL students know where you are, and where you are going with your lesson. Relate to prior knowledge — Make use of student background knowledge of science concepts. Discover what your students already know about a given topic and build upon this knowledge.
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Hand-on activities — Kinesthetic learning events provide an excellent learning environment for English language learners. Clear, procedural steps — The science laboratory can be a confusing and potentially dangerous setting for English language learners. Present procedures clearly using flow charts, pictures, and outlines. Model laboratory activities — Demonstrate activities in front of class to ensure that English language learners can see the procedures before engaging in an activity.
Pictorial guide — Provide a visual reference to glassware and other materials used in experiments and activities. Review safety symbols and post them in the room and in the lab handout.
The History of English - How New Words Are Created
Journaling — Students become better writers by writing. Require English language learners to keep science journals 3. Science reading comprehension activities — Cloze 2. Wait time — Teachers are often uncomfortable with silence and either call on the first student to raise their hand, or answer questions themselves, thereby short-circuiting the thought processes of most students, particularly English language learners who are trying to translate terms while formulating an explanation.
Let students know that you expect all to be mentally engaged, and for this reason you provide wait-time sufficient for the majority to develop an answer before calling on any individual. Analogies — Use analogies to relate new concepts to previously learned concepts Language-based science games — Reinforce vocabulary with Science Bingo These games require minimal spoken language and provide an excellent review of science vocabulary. Picture glossary — One of the best ways to learn the vocabulary of a new language is with pictorial flash cards.
A picture of the concept is on one side while the term in the language to be learned is on the reverse. The student learns to correlate concepts directly with words, eliminating the need for translation. Common lexicon — People construct understanding by integrating new ideas with pre-existing knowledge. Ask students what they already know, then develop a common classroom vocabulary that can be used to develop new understandings. Root words — A knowledge of Greek and Latin prefixes, suffixes, and roots can greatly enhance student understanding of scientific terms and facilitate a better understanding of English and other European languages.
Learning scientific root words thereby helps one understand the vocabulary of a variety of languages, particularly English 1. Cognates — Many science terms are used internationally. Identify such terms 2. This helps build your knowledge of cognates words that are similar in two or more languages so you can help future learners master science vocabulary. Mathematics translation — English language learners find word problems much more challenging than symbolic math problems.
The English language is exceedingly complex, with numerous nuances that must be learned. Students need to be able to translate common words to math symbols The activities in this book help students develop such skills. Word wall — Post new vocabulary terms on the wall in an organized, grouped manner. For example, you may wish to post new biology terms in columns according to the level of organization cell, tissue, organ, etc.
Strategies for Teaching Science to English Language Learners exerpt from chapter 24 In , 42 percent of American public school students were of racial or ethnic minorities, up 22 percent from 30 years before. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 13 1 : 84— The American Journal of Dermatopathology 14 4 : — Terminology 4 1 : 35— The American Journal of Dermatopathology 20 1 : —8. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 21 2 : —7. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 22 2 : — The American Journal of Dermatopathology 22 5 : — The American Journal of Dermatopathology 23 1 : 69— The American Journal of Dermatopathology 26 6 : — The American Journal of Dermatopathology 27 1 : 86— Oxford: Elsevier.
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